|您可以在Wikipedia上了解到此条目的英文信息 Package manager Thanks, Wikipedia.|
A package management system is a collection of tools to automate the process of installing, upgrading, configuring, and removing software packages from a computer.
模板:See also By the nature of free software, packages under similar and compatible licenses are available for use on a number of operating systems. These packages can be easily combined and distributed using configurable and internally complex packaging systems to handle many permutations of software and manage version-specific dependencies and conflicts. Some packaging systems of free software are also themselves released as free software.
- For binary packages
- dpkg, used originally by Debian GNU/Linux and now by other systems, uses the .deb format and was the first to have a widely known dependency resolution tool, Deb Installer, APT.
- fink, for Mac OS X, derives partially from dpkg/apt and partially from ports.
- The RPM Package Manager was created by Red Hat, and is now used by a number of other Linux distributions. RPM is the Linux Standard Base packaging format and is the base of a large number of additional tools, including apt4rpm, Red Hat's up2date, Mandriva's urpmi, SuSE's YaST and YUM, used by Fedora Core and Yellow Dog Linux.
- A simple tgz package system combines the standard tar and gzip. Used by Slackware Linux there are a few higher-level tools that use the same tgz packaging format, including: slapt-get, slackpkg and swaret.
- Pacman for Arch Linux uses pre-compiled binaries distributed in a tgz archive.
- Smart Package Manager
- For installing from a recipe
- Portage and emerge are used by Gentoo Linux. They were inspired by the BSD ports system and use scripts called ebuilds to install software.
- A recipe file contains information on how to download, unpack, compile and install a package in GoboLinux distribution using its Compile tool.
- Hybrid systems
- The FreeBSD Ports Collection, sometimes known as just ports, uses a system of Makefiles to install software from sources or binaries. MacPorts (for Mac OS X), NetBSD's pkgsrc and OpenBSD's ports collection are similar.
- Meta package managers
The following unify package management for several or all Linux and sometimes Unix variants. These, too, are based on the concept of a recipe file.
- klik aims to provide an easy way of getting software packages for most major distributions without the dependency problems so common in many other package formats.
- Autopackage uses .package files.
- epm, developed by Easy Software Products (creators of CUPS), is a "meta packager", that allows to create native packages for all Linux and Unix operating systems (.deb, .rpm, .tgz for Linux, pkg for Solaris and *BSD, .dmg for OS X,...) controlled from a single *.list file.